Due to the structure of the site, which blocks entry to those without a school email address and then places individuals into communities based on that email address, Facebook serves a geographically-bound user base. These sites can be oriented towards work-related contexts e. Comments Comments Plugin The Comments plugin lets people comment on content on your site using their Facebook account. When social capital declines, a community experiences increased social disorder, reduced participation in civic activities, and potentially more distrust among community members. Conversely, there was little difference in bridging social capital among those who reported high satisfaction with life at MSU and high self-esteem relative to Facebook use intensity.
We also found an interaction between bridging social capital and subjective well-being measures. Such connections could have strong payoffs in terms of jobs, internships, and other opportunities. There was a slight tendency for newer students to use Facebook to meet new people more than for juniors and seniors to do so see Figure 3 , but across all four years in school, respondents reported greater use of Facebook for connecting with existing offline contacts. The Internet has been linked both to increases and decreases in social capital. Social networks change over time as relationships are formed or abandoned. Adding Facebook intensity raised the R 2 to.
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We collected information about demographic and other descriptive variables, including gender, age, year in school, local vs. The significance of these variables did not change when the interaction terms were added. Can you see the real me? We thus propose a second hypothesis on the relationship between Facebook use and close ties:. Profile elements as signals in an online social network. Our instrument included four broad types of measures, which are discussed in more detail below.
Page Plugin With the Page plugin, you can embed components of your Facebook Page right onto your website. Participants may use the sites to interact with people they already know offline or to meet new people. Profile elements as signals in an online social network.
We also explored whether gender and year in school interacted with Facebook intensity, in order to see if gender or time at MSU accounted for variation in the association between bridging social capital and Facebook use. Created in 2004, by 2007 Facebook was reported to have more than 21 million registered members generating 1. Computer-mediated communication effects on disclosure, impressions, and interpersonal evaluations: The full set of social capital items was factor analyzed to ensure that the items reflected three distinct dimensions see Table 5.
Granovetter 1973 , 1982 has suggested that weak ties provide more benefit when the weak tie is not associated with stronger ties, as may be the case for maintained high school relationships. Citing articles via Web of Science 4006. Young adults moving to college need to create new networks at college. Our three measures of social capital—bridging, bonding, and maintained social capital—were created by adapting existing scales, with wording changed to reflect the context of the study, and creating new items designed to capture Internet-specific social capital Quan-Haase and Wellman, 2004. This offline to online movement differs from the patterns observed by early researchers examining computer-mediated communication and virtual communities.
The Group Plugins lets people join your Facebook group from a link in an email message or a web page. We use Facebook as a research context in order to determine whether offline social capital can be generated by online tools. Online social network sites may play a role different from that described in early literature on virtual communities. Communication technology and friendship during the transition from high school to college. Created in 2004, by 2007 Facebook was reported to have more than 21 million registered members generating 1. The Internet has been linked both to increases and decreases in social capital.
These potentially useful connections may be valuable sources of new information and resources. Facebook seems well-suited to facilitate these experiences, in that detailed profiles highlight both commonalities and differences among participants. For instance, Parks and Floyd 1996 report that one-third of their respondents later met their online correspondents face-to-face. Social capital broadly refers to the resources accumulated through the relationships among people Coleman, 1988. Can you see the real me? Embedded Comments Embedded comments are a simple way to put public comments into the content of your web site or web page.
This is most likely due to the fact that Facebook is a relatively recent phenomenon, and we would expect senior students to be less likely to join. The adjusted R 2 for the control factors alone was. Female, younger, in-state, and on-campus students were slightly overrepresented in our sample. Finally, respondents may have misreported behavioral or demographic information, as we used self-reported rather than direct measures of Facebook use and other variables. Summary statistics and factor analysis results for self-esteem and satisfaction with MSU life items. General Internet use was not a significant predictor of bonding social capital, and the interactions between Facebook use and the two psychological measures were not significant.
Students reporting low satisfaction and low self-esteem appeared to gain in bridging social capital if they used Facebook more intensely, suggesting that the affordances of the SNS might be especially helpful for these students. Facebook Developers Community Group. Finally, Facebook intensity predicted increased levels of maintained social capital, which assessed the extent to which participants could rely on high school acquaintances to do small favors. This leads to the two following pairs of hypotheses:.
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Share Button Allow people to share to Facebook, share with particular friends or with a group. In May of 2006, Facebook began establishing company sites and allowed members to choose their networks. In 2006, the company introduced communities for commercial organizations; as of November 2006, almost 22,000 organizations had Facebook directories Smith, 2006. This measure also includes a series of Likert-scale attitudinal questions designed to tap the extent to which the participant was emotionally connected to Facebook and the extent to which Facebook was integrated into her daily activities see Table 2 for item wording and descriptive statistics. The reliability test for this 5-point Likert scale showed a relatively high reliability see Table 4. Self-esteem by FB intensity 4.
Such connections could have strong payoffs in terms of jobs, internships, and other opportunities. The quote plugin lets people select text on your page and add it to their share, so they can tell a more expressive story. Page Plugin With the Page plugin, you can embed components of your Facebook Page right onto your website.
Quote Plugin The quote plugin lets people select text on your page and add it to their share, so they can tell a more expressive story. We interviewed one graduate and six undergraduate students about their Facebook use; the data were used to inform survey construction and study design. In addition, Facebook usage was found to interact with measures of psychological well-being, suggesting that it might provide greater benefits for users experiencing low self-esteem and low life satisfaction. It may be that the positive outcomes linked to Facebook use discussed here are limited to this special case in which the offline community is bounded spatially and to the unique nature of the undergraduate experience.
However, when we compare the demographics of our sample to information we have about the MSU undergraduate population as a whole, our sample appears to be representative with a few exceptions. The remainder of our analyses are based only on data from Facebook members. One explanation consistent with these interaction effects is that Facebook use may be helping to overcome barriers faced by students who have low satisfaction and low self-esteem. As Figure 2 suggests, students view the primary audience for their profile to be people with whom they share an offline connection. It may be that the positive outcomes linked to Facebook use discussed here are limited to this special case in which the offline community is bounded spatially and to the unique nature of the undergraduate experience.
According to several measures of social capital, this important resource has been declining in the U. The reliability test for this 5-point Likert scale showed a relatively high reliability see Table 4. However, it is unclear how social capital formation occurs when online and offline connections are closely coupled, as with Facebook.